One of the most common leg diseases is flatfoot.
Flat-footedness is congenital and acquired.
Flattening congenital, as a rule, arises against the background of congenital insufficiency of connective tissue. It is not easy to establish congenital flat feet before 5-6 years of age (3%).
Traumatic platypodia is formed due to a fracture of the ankles, calcaneus, tarsometric bones.
Rickets are flattened due to the body's load on the weakened bones of the foot.
Static flat feet (81%) is due to the weakness of the calf and foot muscles, ligament apparatus and bones.
Normally, the foot has two arches - longitudinal (along the inner edge of the foot) and transverse (between the bases of the fingers). Both arches of the foot are designed to maintain balance and protect the body from shaking when walking.
If the arches of the foot are flattened - shaking when walking is forced to compensate the spine, as well as the joints of the legs. By their nature, they are not designed for this function, therefore they cope with it rather badly and quickly fail (with flat feet, arthroses and scoliosis are often found as a result of a violation of the support system). Complete cure of flat feet is possible only in childhood. In adults, the development of the disease can only be slowed down.
Longitudinal flat feet
There is longitudinal flatfoot with functional overload or fatigue of the anterior and posterior tibial muscles.
The longitudinal arch of the foot loses its damping properties, and under the action of the long and short fibular muscles the foot gradually turns inward.
Short flexors of the fingers, plantar aponeurosis and ligamentous apparatus of the foot are unable to support the longitudinal arch. The scaphoid bone settles and, as a result, the flattened longitudinal arch of the foot is flattened.
Flattening is directly dependent on the body weight: the greater the mass and, consequently, the load on the feet, the more pronounced the longitudinal flat feet.
This pathology occurs mainly in women.
Longitudinal platypodia occurs most often at the age of 16-25 years.
In the mechanism of transverse flatfoot, the leading role is played by the weakness of the plantar aponeurosis, along with the same causes as in longitudinal flatfoot.
The clinical picture of transverse flatfoot is very typical: a wide front part of the foot protruding inward, enlarged due to bone-cartilaginous growths, the head of the first metatarsal bone (often called the "bone" or "gout"), the deviation of the big toe outward / hallucox valgus, from the sole, hammer-like deformation of the second and sometimes third fingers, calluses on the fingers.
The more deformation, the more patients complain of pain, difficulty in selecting and using shoes, quick fatigue.
The transverse flatfoot, as a rule, is combined with the curvature of the first toe to the outside.
The transverse platypodia occurs most often at the age of 35-50 years.
Prevention of flat feet
To prevent the development of flatfoot can be even at preschool age, when the foot is in the stage of intensive development, its formation has not yet been completed, so any unfavorable external influences can lead to the appearance of certain functional deviations.
At the same time, in this age period the organism is characterized by great plasticity, therefore it is relatively easy to stop the development of flat feet or correct it by strengthening the muscles and ligaments of the foot.
exercises to strengthen the muscles of the foot
1. At the initial position of the legs apart, the socks "look" inside, make alternate turns of the body to the right and left with the turn of the corresponding foot on the outer edge.
2. Then, for a few minutes, look like a socks.
3. Then, like the same time, go on the heels.
4. Slightly resemble the pre-tightened toes.
5. Then go around with your fingers up.
6. Several times a day for 10-15 minutes, walk on the outer edges of the foot, as "bear-toed." Such an excess varus compensates valgus flattening of the foot and again, as it were, gathers the foot "into a fist."
7. Standing on your toes, shift from foot to foot.
8. Sitting on a chair, as high as possible, lift one or the other leg straightened. Do the same with both feet together.